Racism in Science.
A skull from the collection of Samuel Morton, the father of Scientific racism, illustrate his classification of people into five races-which arose, he claimed, from separate acts of creation.
This image was taken at as part of coverage for the new issue of @NatGeo magazine's cover story on race.
Morton claimed in his Crania Americana that the Caucasians had the biggest brains, Indians were in the middle and Negroes had the smallest brains. Morton believed that the skulls of each race were so different that a wise creator from the beginning had created each race and positioned them in separate homelands to dwell in.
An Anglo American skull (see above) would have been filled with lead shot, the type used in shotgun shells, his skull measurements (by volume) then came to serve as "evidence" for racial stereotypes.
Morton believed that cranial capacity determined intellectual ability, and he used his craniometric evidence in conjunction with his analysis of anthropological literature then available to argue in favor of a racial hierarchy which put Caucasians on the top rung and Africans on the bottom. His skull measurements (by volume) then came to serve as "evidence" for racial stereotypes.
He described the Caucasian as "distinguished by the facility with which it attains the highest intellectual endowments"; Native Americans were described as "averse to cultivation, and slow in acquiring knowledge; restless, revengeful, and fond of war, and wholly destitute of maritime adventure" and the Africans he described as "joyous, flexible, and indolent; while the many nations which compose this race present a singular diversity of intellectual character, of which the far extreme is the lowest grade of humanity".
The publication of #CharlesDarwin's On The Origin of Species in 1859 changed the nature of the scholarly debate. This is another example of the influence of the work by #Darwin and #AlfredRusselWallace
2 of 2 Please check out the url in my profile and checkout an art sale that benefits the 475 Kent Tenants Association (475KTA) and teams up with @springbreakartshow for this auction through @artsy to support a creative community at #475Kent. Celebrating the 20th anniversary of this legendary artists’ building on the Southside, the 475KTA is working to ensure live/work tenants are secure in their homes for decades to come. The 475KTA advocates with New York City Loft Tenants, representing NYC’s greater livework community. The image is the hand of a gorilla. @475Kentlives
1 of 2 In 1997 I moved to Williamsburg, Brooklyn from Greenwich Village, in an effort to get more space both in an apartment and environment. Little did I realize that I had moved into an important building full of world class artists and photographers. I have since moved around the corner, but I credit 475 with playing an important role in my early shooting years in NYC. I have donated two images for an online auction (the url in is my profile) in support of an important group of artists. The sale will benefit the 475 Kent Tenants Association (475KTA) and teams up with @springbreakartshow for an auction through @artsy to support a creative community at #475Kent. Celebrating the 20th anniversary of this legendary artists’ building on the Southside, the 475KTA is working to ensure live/work tenants are secure in their homes for decades to come. The 475KTA advocates with New York City Loft Tenants, representing NYC’s greater livework community. The image is a donkey fetus I photographed in the West Bank museum/zoo. #475kentlives
I photographed the these women and children at a mountain pass in the Andes of Peru as they rested on the way to a festival.
Nowhere on earth do women have as many opportunities as men. Nowhere. But for girls and women in the poorest countries, that inequality is amplified.
I don't know about any of you, but the women in my life are the best people I know.
Please locate the URL in my Profile and head on over to the auction website that is a fund raising effort for my daughter's school in Brooklyn, PS84.
The above picture is my contribution to the over all effort to help fund activities sponsored by the PTA. The photo is off a Starling bird wing, that is Part of my book, Feather's Displays of Brilliant Plumage.
Check it out and help a great group of kids. #PS84
The Bundle mummies of the Chachapoya, The so called “Cloud People” were an Andean culture located in the cloud forests of northern Peru. It’s not clear when the culture originated, but it was conquered by the Incas around 1475 AD. When Francisco Pizarro arrived in Peru in 1532, the hostility of the Chachapoyas toward the Incas led many of them to side with the Spanish.
The most spectacular remnant of the Chachapoya civilization is Kuelap, a mountain fortress built at an altitude of 10,000 feet. In terms of the mass of stone used, Kuelap is even bigger than the Great Pyramid of Giza. #mummies#Peru
I photographed this #Bogbody at the #IrishNationalMuseum, I made 75 or so lighting changes before I stopped and was happy with the results. Clonycavan man, was smaller in size measuring just 5ft 2 in height. He was recovered from a bog in Co. Meath and only his upper torso and head survived. The remains were radiocarbon dated to between 392 BC and 201 BC ( iron Age II) his hair was spiked with pine resin for control and styling. The trees with is resin only grow in Spain and south-west France, suggesting long distance trade routes. #mummy
While working on a story for @NatGeo and waiting for permission to photograph at an archaeological site I was given permission to photograph some mummies in the
Museo Leoncio Prado y Héroes de Huamachuco in #HuamachucoPeru.
The #Chachapoyamummies are from the culture also known as the , ‘Cloud People’. In the ninth century the Cloud People began carving settlements out of the extremely dense mountain forests situated between the Marañón and Huallaga rivers.
In 1470, the were over run buy the huge Inca Empire; the mane Chachapoya actually comes from the Incan language Quechua, because the people were living in the cloud forest.
The arrival of the Spaniards brought with them new diseases, such as Smallpox, to the New World which contributed to the disapearence of the race, DNA has shown that some mummies may have died from Necrotizing Fasciitis (Flesh-Eating Disease).
Most burial sites and archaeological discoveries had been so heavily looted that little was left. They left no evidence of a written language, which means that no record of the internal workings of war or daily life can be found.
An underground burial site was found deep inside a cave containing five Chachapoya #mummies was found in 2006, two found were with skin and hair. Thus confirming the height and skin type of the Cloud People, and about the intricate racial makeup.
Statues of wood, stone carvings and artifacts have been which will help with the understanding of the tribe. #Peru#Mummies