The Columbia Basin's salmon and steelhead runs were once among the largest in the world with an estimated 10-16 million fish making their way up the river each year. Now, due to the presence of 14 dams, those numbers have dropped to about 5% of what they used to be, and none of those fish make it to the Upper Columbia. This isn't just an issue for salmon as the loss of one piece of the ecosystem puzzle cascades through the entire system. With salmon being a keystone species of the Pacific Northwest, they have "shaped our landscapes as much as glaciers and volcanoes"(Langdon Cook "Upstream: Searching for wild salmon, from river to table"). More than 135 other fish and wildlife had benefited from the presence of the salmon and steelhead; from wolves to bears, otter, coyote, seals, sea lions and eagles. Even the southern resident orca (according to Joseph Bogaard), which are at a 30 year population low, have been placed among eight species off the northwest coast to go extinct without dramatic action. Seven whales have died in just the past two years, with a the lack of Chinook salmon being strongly implicated as the main cause of decline.