The veena is to be restored.
Available, for info: in direct or email@example.com
Veena is the generic Sanskrit term for stringed instrument, dating back about three millennia. Among various
types of vinas (harps, lyres, lutes, bowed bows, and stick zithers), the precursor to the rudra vina appears in
a description in the Yajurveda (circa 1,000 BCE) as a single string stick zither, which may or may not have
had external resonators. While the principal stringed instruments of the courts of ancient India were harps,
lyres and short-necked lutes, around the middle of the first millennium CE the stick zither supplanted those
types of Vinas, becoming the predominant stringed instrument in Indian court music.
This predominance continued in North India through the Mughal period (1556-1858) and into the first
decade of the twentieth century. Vernacularly known as the bin, the rudra vina of the Mughal courts has
not changed substantially from the 16th century to the present day. Rudra, another name for the major
Hindu deity Siva, is shown playing this instrument in statues and bas reliefs dating back to the 11th century.
A 13th century treatise notes that the neck (͞stick͟) with its frets represent the spine of Siva, and the
gourds the breasts of Siva’s consort, Parvati or of the goddess of music, Sarasvati. At a higher metaphysical
level, the neck is thought to represent the cosmic axis, and the instrument itself is believed to be endowed
with the special capacity to transform cosmic sound, anahata nada (a manifestation of the Hindu godhead), into musical sound. A significant number of miniature paintings of the 17th and 18th centuries depict Hindu
ascetics playing the rudra Vina. Hence, alongside a glorious history of musical performance in the courts of North India, there is an equally old tradition of the rudra Vina being played by Hindu ascetics.
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