Eventually the Soviet government, under leader Leonid Brezhnev, decided to deploy the 40th Army on December 24, 1979. Arriving in the capital Kabul, they staged a #coup, killing president Amin and installing Soviet loyalist Babrak Karmal from a rival faction. The deployment has been variously called an "invasion" (by Western media and the rebels) or a legitimate supporting intervention (by the Soviet Union and the Afghan government).
In January 1980, foreign ministers from 34 nations of the Islamic Conference adopted a resolution demanding "the immediate, urgent and unconditional withdrawal of Soviet troops" from Afghanistan, while the UN General Assembly passed a resolution protesting the Soviet intervention by a vote of 104–18. Afghan #insurgents began #toreceivemassiveamountsofaid and military training in neighboring Pakistan and China, paid for primarily by the #UnitedStates and #Arabmonarchies in the Persian Gulf] As documented by the National Security Archive, "the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) played a significant role in asserting U.S.#influence in Afghanistan by funding military operations designed to#frustrate the Soviet invasion of that country. CIA covert action worked through Pakistani intelligence services to reach Afghan rebel groups." Soviet troops occupied the cities and main arteries of communication, while the mujahideen waged guerrilla war in small groups operating in the almost 80 percent of the country that was outside government and Soviet control, almost exclusively being the rural countryside. The Soviets used their air power to deal harshly with both rebels and civilians, levelling villages to deny safe haven to the mujahideen, #destroying vital #irrigationditches, and laying millions of #landmines.
The military intervention was sharply and almost immediately denounced by the international community, with numerous#sanctions and#embargoes being imposed against the Soviet Union and the U.S.-led 1980 Summer Olympics boycott against Moscow, which was holding the event; the#boycott and sanctions exacerbated Cold War tensions and enraged the Soviet