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Adipose tissue - Couple in Science

When we talk about adipose tissue, the firts thing that comes in our mind is fat or energy storage.
However, in humans, adipose tissue is located in many sites like beneath the skin (subcutaneous fat), around internal organs (visceral fat), in bone marrow, intermuscular and in the breast tissue and show 3 main phenotypes: white (WAT), brown (BAT) and beige. Depend on its location and phenotype, adipose tissue has different functions like protection from mechanical damage, dissipation of energy into heat, endocrine and immune function, energy storage and others.
A new approach in the last years to improve the metabolic profile that demonstrated great results in roedents was the browning of white adipose tissue. Browning is the the accumulation of beige adipocytes in WAT and in roedents occurs due some factors like cold, caloric restriction and physical exercise. In humans this approach is so far already, however, adipose tissue only have been studied and understood in the last years and its new insights will provideus a better understanding about comuniccation among adipose tissue and other tissues and system.


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Graphene Crystallization - Gina Ambrosio

Graphene is a sp2 hybridized carbon arranged in honeycomb lattice. The most explored aspect of graphene physics is the functionalization of its electronic properties. The surface functionalization can be achieved either by the physisorption of organic molecules via non covalent interaction (Fig. a) or by chemisorption of reactive organic species via covalent bond with graphene (Fig. b). In the case of non covalent functionalization the molecules are in Van der Waals and ionic interaction with the graphene plane. In the case of covalent functionalization the molecular proceeds via sp2 to sp3 re-hybridization. In both cases, the addition of organic molecules to the graphene has an influence on its electronic band structure.


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t's our pleasure in introducing Gina Ambrosio.
Gina is doing a Ph.D. in Physics and she is following a joint project between the Catholic University of Brescia in Italy and KU Leuven in Belgium. She is graduated in Physics from University La Sapienza of Rome. She is carrying out studies on graphene using spectroscopic techniques such as photoemission spectroscopy. In the pictures you can see the setup used for the analysis of graphene and the graphene sample mounted in the ultra high vacuum chamber. The aim of her research project is to modify the electronic structure of graphene and to use it in electronic devices such as transistors. Gina ia active in the field of integrity and inclusivity. She organize social events to bring together people from diverse nationalities in the city of Brescia #Brescialanguageexchange. She recently went to Kenya for a volunteer project fot #stella_cometa_onlus. Thanks to the Ph. @francescoflorenz for those nice pics.
We welcome you to the Addictive Brain community and we look forward to your contribution.


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Sargassum Bloom - Lowell Andrew

Imagine this: On a sunny day, in your favorite Tropical West Atlantic beach spot (could be Miami Beach or Cancún, MX), you are strolling along the beach. The mood is all well for you until, you step on something icky and smelly! A brown, decomposing seaweed between your feet gives you some unsightly disgust to your day...
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Smells and gross-factors would be the least of your worries. Meet pelagic Sargassum, a genus of brown macroalgae (read: seaweed) common along west Atlantic tropical regions. Sargassum is “the double-edged sword” of the macroalgae world. In low quantities and in open-water pelagic ecosystems, Sargassum is beneficial as a nutrient source, coastal stabilization, and as habitat for marine life. Juvenile fish and sea turtles, and invertebrates especially benefit from pelagic Sargassum.
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What Sargassum is more infamous for however, are macroalgal blooms that would re-occur every summer since 2011. Huge amounts of Sargassum washed up on Caribbean beaches can cause anoxic conditions to coastal systems, release hydrogen sulfide as a noxious gas, and cause millions in economic damages to tourism businesses. .
Caribbean countries especially affected by the Sargassum blooms are already acting. Quintana Roo, México this year is already using diversion barriers to block incoming Sargassum, and is even receiving help from the U.S. to assist in cleanup efforts. While this may be a temporary solution, it’s likely there will be more Sargassum blooms to reappear for years to come.


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It's a pleasure in introducing Lowell Andrew Iporac.

Lowell is a third-year Ph.D Student at Florida International University’s (FIU) Biology Doctoral Program. Lowell obtained his B.A. in Biology from California State University, San Bernardino, where he completed four different undergraduate projects. Among those four research projects, it was an internship at Shannon Point Marine Center, Washington State that sparked his interest in marine biology. Upon transitioning to FIU, he joined the Marine Macroalgae Research Lab (MMRL) with Dr. Ligia Collado-Vides in 2016.
His dissertation focuses on marine plant-animal interactions, and strives to understand the characteristics of macroalgae and invertebrates that drive these interspecies interactions. The scope of macroalgae (read: “seaweeds”) ranges from drift red macroalgae tumbling along seagrass meadows to brown Sargassum blooms washing up on beaches. When Lowell isn’t glued onto the computer or conducting bench work, Lowell likes to snorkel at local beaches and walk along botanical gardens.

We welcome you to the Addictive Brain community and we look forward to reading your contributions.


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Probably one of the most amazing things I get to do is share my knowledge. I’ve ALWAYS wanted to be the most non-traditional teacher that a person knows and by pursuing a PhD in STEM I could that. Today I got the opportunity to share what I know about #BreastCancer with the Bethesda Church of God! It was such a blessing because I know not only am I doing what God desires of me but I’m increasing awareness in my people at the same time. 🙏🏾 #STEMPhD
#WomenInSTEM
#BlackWomenInSTEM
#BlackPhDs
#CommunityAwareness


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Learn about Bacteriophage in our new article by Tom Luthe.

Cover image: Medical News Today

https://docs.wixstatic.com/ugd/f79602_13a7ed9cbaef46fba34456e2c8ba1fb1.pdf


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Learn about synapse quantification predicting neural network activity in our new post by Egor Dzyubenko.

Image adapted from: The antipsychotic drugs olanzapine and haloperidol modify network connectivity and spontaneous activity of neural networks in vitro.

https://docs.wixstatic.com/ugd/f79602_b8fcbe7a365e493b85b5189d15d4eb10.pdf


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It's our pleasure to introduce Egor Dzyubenko.

Egor has obtained his MSc in Biophysics and Bionanotechnology at the Biological Department of Lomonosov’s MSU in Moscow. Since his scientific interests always connected to neuroscience, he pursued a PhD at the International Graduate School of Neuroscience in Bochum, Germany. Egor obtained the PhD degree in Neuroscience in 2016 for his work “Modifying synaptogenesis and functional state of neural networks in vitro: insights from the antipsychotic treatments and extracellular matrix depletion”. Today, he leads a small research group as a postdoc at NeuroScienceLab in Essen university Hospital, Germany. His current interests are in revealing the complex interactions between astrocytes, neuronal networks and extracellular matrix in stroke. Egor and his students use cutting edge techniques in superresolution microscopy, multiple electrode array (MEA) electrophysiology, live cell Ca++ imaging alongside with custom-developed cell morphology assays. Follow @neurogorka for science stories and beautiful pictures!

We welcome you to the Addictive Brain community and we look forward to reading your contributions.


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Learn about Alzheimer's disease in our new article titled "A Fight Against Time: The Desperate Battle to Find a Cure for Alzheimer’s Disease" by Julia Ravey.

https://docs.wixstatic.com/ugd/f79602_7d9bcce362af44a78cd05d814e4e5e3b.pdf


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It's our pleasure in introducing Julia Ravey.

Julia is just entering the second year of her PhD at University College London and her research focuses on the neurobiology of Alzheimer's disease. She has been studying neuroscience for 6 years and has a real passion for sharing this knowledge with scientists and non-scientists alike. Her page @me_mycells_andi translates science jargon into everyday conversation with the hope of making science accessible to everyone. Julia is also an advocate for women in science and is trying to rid of scientist stereotypes once and for all!

We welcome you to the Addictive Brain community and we look forward to reading your contributions.


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Polymerase Chain Reaction - Mohamad Wahidi

PCR stands for "Polymerase Chain Reaction’’ and it’s a method used in molecular biology. It’s known and done by almost all biological scientists around the world.

This technique allows us to amplify (multiply) specific DNA sequences that were extracted from certain organisms to get hundreds and even thousand of copies of their genetic information!!
To start the process, you need to have four indispensable things:
1- The chosen DNA-templates
2- DNA Primers: A primer is a short strand of DNA that serves as a starting point for DNA synthesis. It’s just a small DNA fragment that can bind to specific sites on the DNA-template that is complementary to it. It’s possible to add several different primer extracts at the same time.
3- DNA-Polymerase: an enzyme that is added to help single stranded DNA templates undergo replication. It binds to the end of the DNA Primer that has been added before and completes the replication process. (In the last experiment I’ve done, I used Taq-DNA-Polymerase which is a polymerase extracted from the bacteria Thermus aquaticus (explains the name: Taq) because it was proven to be thermophile and thus resistant to high temperatures that the DNA fragments will later be subjected to and in this way prevent the Polymerase from getting damage). Continued in comments...


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It's our pleasure in introducing Mohamad Wahidi.

Mohamad is a 21 years old Lebanese, and is studying Biology at Ruhr-University Bochum in Germany. After finishing Highschool in Beirut, he was very eager to study abroad so he decided to go to Germany to do so.

He just finished his second year now, so he is done with the ‘basic level of study’ and as of next semester he will only be doing practical modules and research projects.

He has always been interested in sciences, especially biology and Astronomy but he chose to pursue his degree in biology because he just loves studying about life and discover its mysteries along with working in wet labs with all the liquids, cells, DNA and microorganisms that we get to have in our hands. Out of all the practical courses and lab rotations that he had until now, he has developed a real interest in Physiology, microbiology and genetics. It just amazes him how we work with things that we can’t see but get to analyse their data using in vitro observational and computational techniques.
We welcome you to the Addictive Brain community and we look forward to reading your contributions.


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Learn about the Wine industry and how they employ Lactic Acid bacteria for Wine production written by Vicky Cerderia.

https://docs.wixstatic.com/ugd/f79602_b281620f937b44ee823f2e429ad1659d.pdf

Image source: The complexity of wine: clarifying the role of microorganisms


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Mongolian palentology by Gabriel-Philip Santos

Welcome to Bayanzang, or as it’s called in the West, the Flaming Cliffs!

Resembling fire when bathed in the glow of the setting sun, these sandstone cliffs in the Omnogovi Province of Mongolia (Gobi Desert) are an important landmark for paleontologists not just in Mongolia, but throughout the world.

It was here in the 1920’s that renowned paleontologist, Roy Chapman Andrews, and the American Museum of Natural History Expedition discovered the very first fossilized dinosaur eggs!

Since then, many more important discoveries have been found here. Famous dinosaurs like Velociraptor (yes, like the ones in Jurassic Park), Oviraptor, and Protoceratops have all been uncovered in the red sands of Bayanzag.

Unfortunately, this boon of fossils has also created an underground demand for fossils by collectors and poaching fossils has been a huge problem for Mongolian paleontologists. Many important specimens had been illegally removed from Mongolia and sold throughout the world.

Thankfully, thanks to work of people like Dr. Bolortsetseg Minjin and the Institute for the Study of Mongolian Dinosaurs (@mongoliandinos), many new laws and regulations are in place to help protect the paleontological resources of Bayanzag and the stolen fossils are now being returned to Mongolia.
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#palentology #palentologist #fossils#earlyage #science #sciency#theaddictivebrain #meninstem#stemboys #STEMPhD #evolution#outreach #augmentedreality#virtualreality #cosplay#cosplayforscience #ilovescience#museums #fossilfuels #extraction #fossilextraction #lifescience #educatetheworld #edcuatetheyoung #educatethemass #masseducation #ilovepalentology #palentologist


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Heya people! This is Diva Whalen, 4th year PhD candidate at Meharry Medical College. She's recently elucidating the theory of preferential GEFs in Triple Negative Breast Cancer. Along with being a life long learner of biochemistry and cancer biology, she's an avid sports fan and player. She plays softball and study the art of GoJu karate. She's very engaged in the Nashville community through my Graduate School Association at MMC. She chairs the academic and community outreach committee. Their mission is to educate And relate science to kids who look just like her.
You're an amazing person Diva! Hope you achieve all your dreams. Stay motivated ♡ @diva_futurephd
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#STEMPHD #BlackInSTEM #WomenInSTEM #scientist #microbiologia #lab #medicos #microscopy #biologia #parasitology #microbiologist #iphone #hospital #entranceexam #molecularbiology #laboratorio #follow #microorganisms #laboratorium


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But WHO'S really trying to READ THIS??? It's the past 7 years of my career stuffed into a super fat D- ring binder. 🌟🙌🌟 #amazeyourself #superproud #DrChamberstoYou #academia #tenure #firstgeneration #look_at_me_mommy #shedidthat #stemphd #iamshe #4nya_and_josh
Thank you @smile4sherrye @instajam8109 @ms._mitchell @brownshuga_01 @robertmcfarland186 @eatuhairwe @candipaiges @jwanderson81 @idesignphotony @fettifingazent @king_atiba24 and other friends and family who have listened to me whine, listened to me cry, gave an encouraging word at just the right time, or in some cases (WONT SAY NAMES BUT YOU KNOW WHO YOU ARE F*IN MEANIE) said some really ass backwards shit to help me along.


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This PCR plate is for Human DNA typing of HLA class I & class II alleles, known as HLA typing!
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The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is a gene complex encoding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins in humans.
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MHC class I (A, B, and C) present peptides from inside the cell. If a cell is infected by a virus, the HLA system brings virus fragment to the cell surface (Antigen presentation) so that cell can be destroyed by immune system. Viral Antigen presented by MHC class -I attract cytotoxic T cells (CD-8) to destroy infected cell.
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MHC class II (DR, DQ, DP, DM) present antigens from outside of the cell to T-cells. These antigens stimulate the multiplication of CD-4 cells which trigger antibody producing B cells against specific antigen.
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Apart from role in immune function, HLA typing is used to match patients and donors for organ, bone marrow or cord blood transplants.
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As HLA are proteins found on most cells in your body, immune system uses these markers to recognize which cells belong in your body and which do not. Mutation in HLA may be associated with autoimmune diseases and even cancer. .
#science #sciency #womeninscience #meninscience #stem #stemphd #sciencecouple #coupleinscience #womenempowerment #scicomm #biochemistry #research #immunology #immune #immunity #immunsystem #immunesystem #hla #medicalresearch #medlife #phdlife #clinicalresarch #immunehealth #hlatyping #sciencenerd #mumbai #india


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Please give a big round of applause in welcoming Nora Awadallah.

Nora is a second year PhD student at the University of Florida’s College of Medicine’s Graduate Program in Biomedical Sciences concentrating in Pharmacology. Previously, she received her B.S from the University of Vermont in Neuroscience. Nora’s undergraduate research revolved around chemotherapy’s effect on cell proliferation within the olfactory system. For her PhD, Nora is interested in the gut-brain-axis, or the bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain, as well as the dopamine transporter (DAT). She is interested in understanding this axis from a developmental time point, and is interested in how modulation of the gut-brain-axis may interfere with the dopaminergic system in addiction and neurodegeneration. Nora is passionate about uncovering these questions while helping out her community. She is currently the community service co-chair for her graduate student organization and participates in local after school and summer programs aiming at showing kids how great science can be. When she’s not in the lab, Nora loves to cook, shop, play her viola, and work out! Feel free to ask her any and all questions you have regarding neuroscience, pharmacology, and grad school!
Welcome Nora, to The Addictive Brain community and we look forward to reading your contribution.
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#science #sciency #womeninscience #girlsinscience #universityofflorida #florida #STEM #phd #STEMPhD #lifeofascientist #pharmacology #dopamine #DAT #gutbrainaxis #gut #modulation #dopaminergic #neurons #theaddictivebrain #brain #educatetheworld #educatethemass #educatetheyouth #womenempowerment #empoweringwomen #womenpower #girlpower


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Learn about the Neurobiology of seizures an article written by Maria Pechlivanidou

Cover image - Monoaminergic Mechanisms in Epilepsy May Offer Innovative Therapeutic Opportunity for Monoaminergic Multi-Target Drugs

https://docs.wixstatic.com/ugd/f79602_9421fcc5fc0b4e6fa587d31a76e4261d.pdf

We would like to thank Maria for explaining the concept behind seizures. We are sure many of us learnt something new through the article
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#epilepsy #epilepsyawareness #SUDEP #seizures #seizurebiology #trauma #infectivedisease #lifeofascientist #science #scientist #sciency #educatethemass #educatetheworld #educatetheyouth #womeninscience #sciencegirls #STEM #STEMphd #stemgirls #girlsinstem #theaddictivebrain #brainscience #neurobiology #neuroscience


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Learn about Essential Fatty Acid through an article written by Mitchell Zandes.
https://bit.ly/2wgrx7b

We would like to thank Mitchell for writing such a great article and explaining the topic in such detail. It was very informative.
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#omega3 #omega6 #fattyacid #eicosanoids #vascular #bloodclot #hormone #immunity #immunesystem #fish #seafood #triglyceride #linoleicacid #genderbased #phospholipids #interindividual #meninscience #healthylife #nutritionist #nutrition #lifeofascientist #meninSTEM #PhD #theaddictivebrain #stemPhD #STEM #healthybody #health #healthscience


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Chimeric T cells: the living drugs - The Science Times

A T cell is a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in protective immunity. It recognizes foreign molecules (antigens) by a surface receptor called T-cell receptor (TCR) and plays a vital role in clearing infections and killing aberrant cells.

Researchers are using the properties of the T cells to develop therapies for cancers. Cancers evolve by evading recognition by the immune system and T cells are being engineered to have a TCR that is specific for proteins that appear on the surface of certain cancers. For this, the T cells are taken from the cancer patients, made to express these new TCRs called Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) and infused back in the patients where they now seek and destroy the cells expressing those antigens.

The problem arises when healthy cells express the same molecules (e.g. CD19 on healthy B cells and lymphomas) as the cancer and the CAR-T cells kill those healthy cells too. For CAR-T therapy to be safe we will need a better level of control over the cells to determine when and where in the body the T cells are activated.

The image shows a group of killer T cells (green and red) surrounding a cancer cell (blue, center). When a killer T cell makes contact with a target cell, it uses special chemicals housed in vesicles (red) to deliver “the kiss of death”. After the target cell is killed, the killer T cells move on to find the next target.

Image: The National Institutes of Health, Wikimedia Commons. -
#chimera #Tcells #cancer #tcellreceptor #Chimericantigenreceptors #chimeric #womeninscience #meninstem #stemphd #theaddictivebrain #science #sciency #lifeofascientist #scientistlife #sciencelife #cancer #fightcancer #fightagainstcancer #immunesystem #immunity #cancercells #vesicles #bloodvessels #stempeers #educatetheworld #educatetheyoung #nonscientists


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We are glad to announce that we are collaborating with "The Skeptical Chemist"
Sean is the chief editor at The Skeptical Chemist and also a chemist working in the pharmaceutical industry. In the free time that he don't actually have ;-), he writes, edits and fact-check articles. He would like to contribute a piece dealing with the chemistry behind colour; why so many organic powders tend to be white, while dyes and inorganic complexes take on the most brilliant hues.

Many new discoveries are made every day and published in scientific journals, but the channels that actually take this information and interpret it for the general public are few and far between. The importance of 'science communication' cannot be understated, as decision makers and the public need to base their opinion off of evidence-based research and facts instead of believing the latest trends circulating social media and even news websites - who might unwittingly regurgitate information from unreliable sources.
The Skeptical Chemist was launched in March 2017 with the goal to communicate evidence-based science to the general public in a fun manner. The team and I create, edit and publish content that we hope will empower readers with insightful knowledge, while advocating the importance of rational and logical thinking. We're always on the lookout for contributors who might want to share their interesting science stories or personal research, as well talented science writers who are keen in joining our mission to bridge the gap between science and society.

Thank you "The Skeptical Chemist" for collaborating with The Addictive Brain and spreading awareness about scientific discoveries to the public.
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#science #scienceawareness #theskepticalchemist #blogs #scienceblog #sciencewebsite #sciency #theaddictivebrain #collaboration #collab #sciencecollab #scienceworld #meninstem #educatetheworld #educatetheyoung #education #scienceeducation #STEM #STEMPhD #stemworld #STEMscience #scienceworld #scienceisfun #chemistry #pharma #sciencegap #steminist


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It's a pleasure to introduce Gabe Santos.

Gabe is a paleontologist in sunny Los Angeles, California where he works for the Raymond M. Alf Museum of Paleontology as their collections manager and outreach coordinator.
As a paleontologist, Gabe’s research has focused on the evolution of marine mammals, particularly the extinct hippo-like animals known as desmostylians. At the Alf Museum, Gabe’s main focus is the care and organization of the museum’s 180,000+ fossil collection which range from tiny insects to giant dinosaurs! He is also the outreach coordinator for the museum and works to develop engaging educational programs and events for his community.

Lately, Gabe’s focus has shifted to science communication and informal education. He has begun working on many projects that aim to making science accessible and scientists more relatable. He also works with smart technology like augmented reality to develop a more accessible museum experience for foreign language speakers and visitors with different levels of accessibility.
When not working in the museum, Gabe is also the co-founder of the @CosplayforScience initiative! Which was created with three of his friends (who also happen to be paleontologists) to use cosplay as a way to teach science!

Gabe also really loves Star Wars, Pokemon, video games, and food.

Thank you Gabe for joining us and we look forward to learn more about dinosaurs and early age.
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#palentology #palentologist #fossils #earlyage #science #sciency #theaddictivebrain #meninstem #stemboys #STEMPhD #evolution #outreach #augmentedreality #virtualreality #cosplay #cosplayforscience #ilovescience #museums #fossilfuels #extraction


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X-ray crystallography - Rhiannon Morris

One of the main techniques I use in my PhD is called x-ray crystallography, a technique that allows us to visualise the 3D structure of a protein by determining where all the atoms in a molecule are!

Essentially what we do is purify our proteins of interest by growing them in a host system (E. coli, human cell lines, insect cells etc.), and using affinity and size exclusion chromatography to isolate our pure sample.
We then concentrate this sample and mix the protein with some other chemicals (often salts and PEGs) and then a small drop (1 ul or less) is put on a cover slip sitting over a pool of the chemicals we mixed the protein with. The water from the small drop will then diffuse into the pool of chemicals and we call this vapor diffusion. Hopefully during this process, the proteins in the drop will arrange themselves into a nice crystal (Think table salt which is a crystal of NaCl). These crystals are very small, but each one varies in size and shape. We can then take these crystals to a Synchrotron, which is a particle accelerator that we use to shoot x-rays at our crystal. These x-rays scatter as they move through the crystal and then are received on the other side of the crystal by some kind of detector. We take heaps of these images on the detector and then can use programs to build a protein structure that is a model of all the molecules inside the crystal!

Thank you Rhiannon for explaining the process of crystallography in such a lucid manner.

Image - protein crystals
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#crystallography #crystals #protein #proteincrystals #proteinscience #proteinbiology #womeninscience #stemgirls #stemwomen #womeninSTEM #stemPhD #STEM #theaddictivebrain #bacteria #humancells #celllines #xrayssynchroton #water #chemicals #chemistry #chemicalbiology #physicalbiology #xrays #detectors


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It's our pleasure to announce that we have launched our science communication website - The Addictive Brain.
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Thanks to all our contributors and team (Satabdi Das & Pratichi Dixit) for the support and motivation. We look forward to collaborating with you.
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Please visit www.theaddictivebrain.com - Link in bio. -
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Any feedback for improvements would be highly appreciated. If you have any questions, please don't hesitate to contact us.
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The site is heavy and is not very mobile friendly. At the moment, we are working on that. Thank you for your continuous support.
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#scicomm #website #webpage #launch #ilovescience #meninstem #womeninstem #STEMPhD #STEM #science #sciency #theaddictivebrain #thescicommunity #steminist #itsscience #ilovescience #scienceisfun


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Kristen Hovet has written an awesome article explaining the concept about epigenetics.

You can learn more about it by visiting our Facebook page or follow the link - https://bit.ly/2N48eVm

We would like to thank Kristen for writting such a beautiful article and explaining the concepts behind epigenetics.
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#epigenetics #genetics #genes #phenotypes #genotypes #epigenome #theories #lifetheories #ilovescience #sciency #theaddictivebrain #articles #educatetheworld #educatetheyouth #youtheducation #womeninSTEM #STEM #stemgirls #stemphd #girlsinscience #womeninscience #science #ilovegenetics #molecularbiology #sciencejournalist #journalism #cellbiology #concepts


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Lab scissors continued --- Dr. Mary McMillan

In my last post I showed you my lab scissors – better known in the business as restriction enzymes.
So I thought I should follow up and show you what they do!
This is a picture of an agarose gel – used to separate fragments of DNA according to their size. Each glowing band on the gel is a group of DNA molecules all of the same size. In the lane on the left I have loaded a DNA ladder, which is a collection of DNA fragments of known sizes. We can use this like a ruler to measure the size of other fragments of DNA on the gel.
In the middle lane I have loaded one of my DNA fragments that hasn’t been exposed to my restriction enzyme. In the lane on the right I have the same DNA sample, except I have mixed the DNA with one of my restriction enzymes. The enzyme has cleaved the DNA, resulting in shorter fragments.
My main use for this technique is to look for genetic variation within certain regions of DNA. If there are changes to DNA, it can change the restriction sites, or places where the enzymes will cut DNA. Sometimes it will mean there is no longer one of these sites, and the DNA will remain uncut. Other times changes to DNA can change where the restriction sites are, moving them closer together or further apart, so that I get different size fragments after the digestion. By looking at the different patterns of bands on a gel like this I can figure out if different people have the same version, or different versions of a gene. So my lab “scissors” are pretty useful!

#restrictiondigestion #restriction #molecularbiology #restrictionenzymes #labscissors#DNA #molbio #womeninstem#stemgirls #stemwomen#womeninscience #DNA #nucleicacid#educatetheworld #educatetheyoung#empoweringwomen #girlsinscience#bacterialDNA #humanDNA#nerdsofinstagram #instascience#theaddicitivebrain #sciency#steminist #stemworld #stemphd #phd#postdoc #postdoclife #lifeofapostdoc#postdocworld


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