Berliners have chosen numerous ways to memorialize those who suffered the atrocities of the city's recent history and ensure they don't forget the darkness the city has seen.
One such way is these Stolpersteine--or stumbling stones--placed in the sidewalks outside apartment buildings where Jews and others were forced from their homes and taken to concentration camps. The stones record the person's birth date, the date they were arrested, the concentration camp(s) they were taken to, and the date they were murdered.
In instances where many people were forcibly removed from their homes and arrested, plaques hang on apartment buildings in lieu of Stolpersteine, as depicted in the second picture.
These particular Stolpersteine and this plaque sit outside our apartment building. I see them every morning when I leave for work. While I do not claim to feel or understand what the people of this city experienced, it's hard not to remember my history lessons when these mini memorials are scattered every few meters.